Worried about Coronavirus? This supplement could be your best bet!

 

 

By now, you may have heard of Chloroquine, an anti-malaria drug that may be helpful in treating Coronavirus.  Clinical trials are currently being conducted around the world to find out.  Chloroquine works by keeping a specific enzyme that gets elevated during an infection, in check.  In doing so, an infection is less likely to take hold, giving the body a chance to mount a stronger immune response and recover.

 

You most likely have not heard of Citicoline, an over-the-counter supplement that works a lot like Chloroquine.  It has been shown in studies, to keep this same enzyme in check.  

 

While Chloroquine is being considered as a possible intervention for Coronavirus infections, Citicoline is not.  But I think it should be.

 

Coronavirus behaves in a similar way to other viruses.  Its replication depends on certain metabolic reactions in the “host” body.  One of these reactions is the elevation of a specific enzyme called phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Certain viruses have proteins that tell the host body to increase production of PLA2.  The elevation in PLA2 enzyme activity creates byproducts, which are powerful, detergent like substances that break down fats, much like laundry detergents. 

 

Fats are an important component of the protective cell membrane, which is vital to cell health and cell function.  Elevated levels of PLA2 and the detergent-like byproducts damage cell membranes, leading to inflammation and pain.  Reducing the levels of this enzyme keeps the integrity of the cell membrane intact and interrupts the mechanism viruses like to use to reproduce.

 

As PLA2 becomes elevated in the presence of viruses, the debris from this activity is used as material in the virus replication process.  The virus also hijacks the PLA2 production ability of the host, enabling it to make even more PLA2.  This process allows the virus to not only thrive in the body but is also responsible for the debilitating symptoms and damage to tissue and organs.  Keeping PLA2 in check is an important factor in managing infection and the inflammatory response in the body.

 

A January 2018 paper in the Journal of Virology reported “that enzymes involved in cellular lipid metabolism may be tractable targets for broad-spectrum antivirals. We obtained evidence to show that PLA2… is critically involved in coronavirus replication.” The inhibition of PLA2 activity, “had profound effects” in cell cultures.  In other words, scientists were able to see that inhibiting PLA2 help control the replication of the virus.

 

A January 2019 paper in the online journal Viruses, also confirmed this noting that PLA2 “was significantly associated with human-pathogenic coronavirus propagation. Our data further suggested that lipid metabolism regulation would be a common and druggable target for coronavirus infections.”  What this is saying is that substances that regulate PLA2 in the body could be helpful in treating infections.

 

Studies have shown that Chloroquine's efficacy in treating infections may be attributable to this down regulation of the PLA2 pathway.  It will not be surprising if this drug is shown to be effective in the clinical trials for Coronavirus.

 

Citicoline, the supplement, has also been shown to inhibit the PLA2 pathway, but mostly in studies exploring its role in central nervous system disorders and not in infectious diseases.  However, a study published in January of 2014 looked at it as an adjunct treatment for Cerebral Malaria and researchers found that Citicoline should be proposed for clinical studies to improve recovery from Cerebral Malaria.

 

A  January 2009 publication in The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, proposed looking at Citicoline as an adjuct therapy in the treatment of infectious disease based on its ability to modulate metabolic pathways, like PLA2, that are associated with infections.

 

Interestingly, levels of the PLA2 enzyme have been show to be elevated in stroke victims as well as in patients with MS, RA, Crohn's, allergies, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, candida, neurological disorders, asthma, and many other illness.  This is where most of the research has taken place.

 

A June 2003 study in the Journal of Neuroscience Research noted, “ the neuroprotective effects of Citicoline in stroke models include prevention of activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)”.  In other words, the inhibition PLA2 was shown to have a protective effect on nerve function after a stroke.

 

If Chloroquine's effectiveness in the treatment of infections stems from this inhibition of PLA2 activity and if Citicoline's effectiveness in the treatment of stroke victims and others with chronic illnesses stems from this inhibition of PLA2 activity, it stands to reason that Citicoline could could be effective in the prevention or management of a Coronavirus infection.

 

Aside from this possibility, there is ample evidence that supplement can be effective in the management of the many inflammatory and age related conditions and illnesses noted earlier. Moreover, Citicoline does not have the harmful side affects associated with taking antibiotics.  It is considered a very safe supplement, with few if any side effects.  

 

To me, in this Coronavirus dominated environment, taking Cititcoline sounds like a win win opportunity for all, especially for those at higher risk.

 

I have written this for informational and educational purposes only.   I have included references if you are interested in learning about this is more detail. There is also more research on Google Scholar.

 

Here is a link to a webinar presented by Great Plains Laboratory on PLA2 and Coronavirus.

https://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/webinars/2020/3/25

 

If anyone has any questions, comments or corrections regarding this information, please get in touch with me.

 

Leslie Barnett

Integrative Health Coach

Barnett Wellness Consulting

(508)314-0587

 

 

 

References:

Phospholipase A2, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Lipid Peroxidation in CNS pathologies

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920609/

Virology. 1992 Nov;191(1):502-5.

 

Phospholipases: at the crossroads of the immune system and the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection

Volume 101, January 2017 Journal of Leukocyte Biology

https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1189/jlb.3RU0316-148RR

 

Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus RNA Replication Depends on GBF1-Mediated ARF1 Activation

Published: June 13, 2008

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000088

 

Phospholipase A2 activity during the replication cycle of the flavivirus West Nile virus

PLoS Pathog. 2018 Apr; 14(4): e1007029. Published online 2018 Apr 30. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007029  PMCID: PMC5945048  PMID: 29709018

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945048/

 

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma is involved in hepatitis C virus replication and assembly.

J Virol. 2012 Dec;86(23):13025-37. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01785-12. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015700

 

A Viral Phospholipase A2 Is Required for Parvovirus Infectivity

Volume 1, Issue 2, August 2001, Pages 291-302

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1534580701000314

 

Citicoline decreases phospholipase A2 stimulation and hydroxyl radical generation in transient cerebral ischemia.   First published:09 June 2003 Journal of Neuroscience Research 2003 study, CDP Choline decrease PLA2 stimulation in stroke victims.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jnr.10672

 

Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Impairs an Early Step of Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture J Virol. 2018 Jan 30;92(4). pii: e01463-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01463-17. Print 2018 Feb 15.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29167338

 

Characterization of the Lipidomic Profile of Human Coronavirus-Infected Cells: Implications for Lipid Metabolism Remodeling upon Coronavirus Replication

Viruses. 2019 Jan; 11(1): 73.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357182/

 

Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum phospholipase A2 by chloroquine, quinine, and arteether. 

J Parasitol. 1993 Aug;79(4):565-70. 

Zidovetzki R1, Sherman IW, O'Brien L. 

 

Phospholipase A2, Hydroxyl Radicals, and Lipid Peroxidation in Transient Cerebral Ischemia 

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling Vol. 5, No. 5 Forum Original Research Communication 

Rao Muralikrishna Adibhatla  James F. Hatcher and  Robert J. Dempsey 

Published Online:5 Jul 2004 https://doi.org/10.1089/152308603770310329 

 

Inhibition of Brain Phospholipase A2 by Antimalarial Drugs: Implications for Neuroprotection in Neurological Disorders  

Medicinal Chemistry Reviews - Online, Volume 2, Number 5, 2005, pp. 379-392(14) 

Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Ong, Wei-Yi; Go, Mei-Lin; Horrocks, Lloyd A. 

Bentham Science Publishers

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/156720305774330485 

 

Please reload

Featured Posts

From Lyme to Alpha-Gal: The Latest on Tick-Borne Diseases

November 9, 2015

1/1
Please reload

Recent Posts

November 10, 2015

Please reload

Archive
Please reload

Search By Tags